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Citing Sources in APA Style: References Page

How to cite sources using APA style 6th edition.

Basic Rules

The References page follows the last page of your text. It documents sources cited and provides information to access each source.

  • The word "References" should be centered at the top of the page.  Keep the running head of your paper and follow the page number order.
  • Arrange items in alphabetical order by first word of the entry.
  • Use hanging indent and double space the entire page - no extra lines between items.
  • List all authors in the order given up to and including seven authors. For more than seven authors, list the first six followed by a comma and... final author.
  • Capitalize the first word of article/book titles, subtitles and any proper nouns.
  • Italicize periodical titles, use upper and lower case as given.
  • Any URLs should be in plain text (to remove color/underlining in Word, right click on URL and select Remove Hyperlink).
  • If no publication date is available, write "n.d." in the parenthesis.
  • If URL or DOI is included, do not end reference with a period.


Author, A. A. (1999). Title of work: Subtitle. City, ST: Publisher.

Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Boehmer, E. (2008). Nelson Mandela: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loew, P. (2013). Indian nations of Wisconsin: Histories of endurance and renewal (2nd ed.). Retrieved from

Chapter or part of a book written by different authors

[section 7.02 p. 202]  For more info, see: Books and Book Chapters: What to Cite from the APA blog.

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

(from a book with different editions)

Hager, R. J. (2000). Children with cancer. In J. B. Webb (Ed.), Life threatening diseases in children (5th ed., pp. 93-120). New York, NY: Woodland.

Entry in an online encyclopedia

no author [7.02.30 p. 205]

Relativity. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from


Volume number is in italics; issue number is not. [6.30 p. 186].
List all authors in order given, up to 7 [6.12 p. 175]

Journal article with DOI

Wijga, A. H., Scholtens, S., Wieringa, M. H., Kerkhof, M., Gerritsen, J., Brunekreef, B., . . . Smit, H. A. (2009). Adenotonsillectomy and the development of overweight. Pediatrics, 123(6), 1095-1101.

When including a DOI, you may use either style below, but you must use the same style throughout your paper.

  • doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1502

Journal article with no DOI

If there is no DOI, the entry should stop at the page numbers.  DO NOT include the article URL from the library database.

Light, M.A. & Light, I.H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Magazine - no volume or issue number

Rash, W. (2018, April). What net neutrality really means and how to protect your business. PC Magazine, 24-29.

Print newspaper - no author

Big tobacco strikes back. (2009, September 7). The New York Times, p. A14.

Newspaper - author and discontinuous pages

McNeil, D. G., Jr. (2009, September 11). One shot seen as protective for swine flu. The New York Times, pp. A1, A13.

Eric Documents

(informally published) [see section 7.09.62 p.212 of A.P.A.]

Muhammad, B. D. (2009). Does site-based management increase student achievement? Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED505985)


  • Identify the type of medium being reviewed in brackets - book, motion picture, TV program, etc.
  • For Book add title, by author names; For film, DVD, or other media include title, producer, year of release.
  • For untitled reviews, use information in brackets as the title and keep brackets.

Rochman, H. (2001, November 1) [Review of the book Tiger's fall ]. Booklist 98 (5), 35.

Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304.


In general, use the format:

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL

See the APA Blog, How to Cite Something You Found on a Website, or specific examples below.


Article from an Online Periodical

Brenhouse, H. (2010). Electrical charge helps sun shine on solar panels. New York Times. Retrieved from

Corporate Author, citing a section/chapter of a document

Edgewood College. (n.d.). Academic honesty policy. In Student handbook. Retrieved from

Government & Institutional Reports

Identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless [it] has been identified as the author: Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://www.xxxxxxx [see 7.03 p. 205]

Smith, S., & Jones, J. (2009). Assessing heart failure in long term care facilities. Retrieved from University of Iowa Department of Nursing, Gerontology Nursing Interventions Research Center website:

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2009). The assessment accommodation matrix for Wisconsin. Retrieved from

AudioVisual Media

[See Audiovisual Media 7.07 p.209 for more examples]

Smith, M. (Producer/Director). (2008). Heat: A global investigation [DVD]. Alexandria, Va.: PBS Home Video.

Frost, B. (2015, January 4). Frog Dissection Structures & Functions [Video file]. Retrieved from

Halasz, P. (2007). La Trobe University library, Bundoora campus [Photograph]. Retrieved from

Dissertations & Theses

Follow Basic form and add retrieval information as necessary. [7.05 p.207]

Author, A. A. (Year) Title of dissertation or master's theses (Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

From a commercial database

McNeil. D. S. (2006) Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)

From an institutional database

Adams, R.J. (1973) Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Unpublished dissertation

(for example from the library or borrowed through ILL)

Fitzgerald, M. K. (2008). Defining the transition-to-school needs of Latino English language learner families (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Edgewood College, Madison WI.

Other Items

Legal Documents

Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972).

Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 29 U.S.C. § 621 (1967).

Charter Schools, Wis. Stat. § 118.40 (2011).


Lecture Presentation

Johnson, A. (2012, April). Women's suffrage movement. Class lecture presented in HIST 352: Women in the 20th century, at Edgewood College, Madison, WI.

Muellbauer, J. (2007, September). Housing, credit, and consumer expenditure. In S. C. Ludvigson (Chair), Housing and consumer behavior. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, WY.


Mobile Apps

[See also the rules for Software 7.08 p. 210]

Skyscape. (2013). Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

For a reference entry within an app:

Diabetes. (2013). In Epocrates Essentials for Apple iOS (Version 5.1) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from



Joyce, C. (2009, September 3). Can Dirt Really Save Us From Global Warming? [Radio program transcript]. In R. Montagne (Host), Morning Edition. Retrieved from

Sample References List in APA