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Citing Sources in APA Style 7th edition: References Page

How to cite sources using APA style 7th edition.

Basic Rules

The References page follows the last page of your text. It documents sources cited and provides information to access each source.

  • The word "References" should be centered at the top of the page.
  • Arrange items in alphabetical order by first word of the entry.
  • Use hanging indent and double space the entire page - no extra lines between items.
  • List all authors in the order given up to and including twenty authors. For more than twenty authors, list the first nineteen followed by a comma, an ellipses (...), and the final author.
  • Capitalize the first word of article/book titles, subtitles and any proper nouns.
  • Italicize periodical titles, use upper and lower case as given.
  • If no publication date is available, write "n.d." in the parenthesis.
  • Always enter DOIs as a URL:
  • If a URL/DOI is included, do not end the reference with a period.


Basic format: Author, A. A. (year or date). Title of article. Journal Name, volume(issue), pages.

Journal article with DOI

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51.

Journal article with no DOI from a library database (or print)

  • DO NOT include the article URL from the library database.

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

Journal article with no DOI from a non-library database URL

  • Include the source URL at the end.

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S.D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 3(1), 17-39.


Magazine or newspaper article from a library database (or print)

  • Include the month or full date if there are no volume/issue numbers.
  • DO NOT include the article URL from the database.

Bunge, J. (2019, August 2). Wet weather poses costly challenge for agribusinesses. Wall Street Journal, B1.

Marvin, R. (2017, February). Blockchain: The invisible tech that's changing the world. PC Magazine, 91–113.

Magazine or newspaper article from a non-library database URL

  • Include the source URL at the end

Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker.

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post.



  • After the article title, add in square brackets "Review of the" and the type of work being reviewed, it's title, and author (or editor, director, etc.).

Santos, F. (2019, January 11). Reframing refugee children's stories [Review of the book We are displaced: My Journey and stories from refugee girls around the world, by M. Yousafzai]. The New York Times.


ERIC Documents (informally published)

Tejada Reyes, V. (2019). Factors that influence basic level English language learning (ED597657). ERIC.

Books / Ebooks

Basic format: Author, A. A. (year). Title of work: Subtitle. Publisher.

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

With a DOI

  • If a book or ebook has a DOI, include it at the end.

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Ebook from a library database

  • DO NOT include the database URL (treat it just like a print book).

Matzo, M., & Sherman, D. W. (2015). Palliative care nursing: Quality care to the end of life (4th ed.). Springer Publishing Company.

Ebook not from a library database

  • Include the URL at the end.

Noble, S. U. (2018). Algorithms of oppression: Data discrimination in the age of Google. New York University Press.

Edited book

Hacker-Hughes, J. (Ed.). (2017). Military and veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.

Chapters or parts of Books / Ebooks

Chapter from a book written by different authors

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Sylva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (pp. 7-13). CRC Press.

From a book with different editions

Hager, R. J. (2000). Children with cancer. In J. B. Webb (Ed.), Life threatening diseases in children (5th ed., pp. 93-120). Woodland.


Entry in an encyclopedia or dictionary

With an individual author:

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University.

With a group author from a continuously updated reference work:

  • Use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Self-report. In dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from

Reports from organizations or government agencies

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

By authors at an organization or government agency

Fried, D., & Polyakova. A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation 2.0. Atlantic Council.

Dissertations & Theses

Basic format: Author, A. A. (year) Title of dissertation or thesis [Degree document, Name of Institution]. Database name or Archive name. https://xxxxxxx

From a library database

  • Include the database name. DO NOT include the database URL.

Hollander, M. M. (2017. Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Not from a library database

  • Include the URL at the end.

Hutcheson, V. H. (2012) Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master's thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William and Mary Archive.

AudioVisual Works

Basic format: Author, A. (year or date). Title of work [description]. Publisher. https://xxxxxx

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film; DVD]. Warner Home Video.

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

With a group author

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.

With username as author (no full name given)

Vammpi. (2007). Gothic cathedral ceiling construction [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.

Software / Mobile Apps

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-anaylsis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer Software]. Biostat. https//

For an entry within a Mobile App:

Epocrates. (2019). Interaction check: Asprin + sertraline. In Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store.

Legal Documents

  • Adding a URL at the end is optional

Brown v. Board of Educucation, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972).

Every Student Succeeds Act, 29 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015).

Charter Schools, Wis. Stat. § 118.40 (2018).


Use this category if there is no other reference category that fits and the work has no parent or over arching publication (e.g. journal, newspaper, etc.) other than the website itself.  To mention a website in general, do not create a reference list entry or in-text citation.  Instead, include the name of the website in the text, and provide the URL in parenthesis.

  • Basic format: Author, A. (date). Title of Page. Website Name. http://xxxxxxxx
  • Provide the most specific date possible

On a news website

Avramova, N. (2018, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN.

With a group author

  • When the author name and the website name are the same, omit the website name from the reference.

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.

With no author

  • Start the entry with the title, and then the date.

Managing student anxiety and ADHD in the classroom. (2016, January 26). C8 Sciences.

With a retrieval date

  • For webpages that are designed to change over time, and are not archived, add a retrieval date before the URL.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from

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