For short quotations (less than 40 words), cite the source with page numbers immediately following the end of the quotation.
Effective teams can be difficult to describe because "high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along another" (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470).
If there are no page numbers
Provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage (heading or section names, paragraph numbers, or both if that will best help the reader find the quotation.
Music and language are intertwined in the brain such that "people who are better at rhythmic memory skills tend to excel at language skills as well" (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4).
Omitted and Added Words
Use ellipsis (...) to indicate any words you omitted from the original work. Use a period plus an ellipsis (. ...) to show a sentence break within omitted material the end of the sentence.
Use brackets [ ] to enclose material you add within a quotation to make it readable or define a term.
DeBacker and Fisher (2012) noted that "those [adults] who read gossip magazines, watch gossip-related television shows, or read gossip articles from internet sites... may feel guilty about wasting their time on a leisure pursuit" (p. 421).
Quotes Within a Quote
Use 'single quotation marks' to indicate dialog or quotations within a quotation.
Bliese et al. (2017) noted that "mobile devices enameled employees in many jobs to work 'anywhere, anytime' and stay electronically tethered to work outside formal working hours" (p. 391).
Quotations That Cite Other Works
When quoting material that contains embedded citations, include the citations within the quotation. Do not include these works in your reference list unless you cite them as a primary source elsewhere in your paper.
Actors "are encouraged to become immersed in a character's life (Stanislavski, 1950), an activity that calls for absorption" (Panero et al., 2016, p. 234).
Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:
Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people's everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)
Or, if you use authors' names in the narrative:
Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias:
Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)
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