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Citing Sources in APA Style: Quotations

How to cite sources using APA style

Quotations

Cite the source with page numbers immediately following the end of the quotation.

The overlapping roles in patient care confuses the issue, where "medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; non-medical needs may be addressed by anyone" (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).

If No Page Numbers

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. [section 6.05 pp. 171-172]

Basu and Jones (2007) suggested a need for a new "intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace" (para. 4).

Use Original Sources Whenever Possible

If you use material quoted by someone else, and you cannot access the original, note that it is "quoted in" and cite the source you have.

Omitted and Added Words

Use ellipsis (...) to indicate any words you omitted from the original work. Use 4 dots to indicate an omission between sentences - one is the period at the end of the sentence.

Use brackets [ ] around any words you add within a quotation to make it readable or define a term.

"They are studying, from an evolutionary perspective, to what extent [children's] play is a luxury that can be dispensed with when there are too many other competing claims on the growing brain... " (Henig, 2008, pp. 39-40).

Quotes within a Quote

Use 'single quotation marks' to indicate dialog or quotations within a quotation.

Scientists are studying how much carbon is stored in soil and what difference plowing makes on that amount. "Soil scientist Michel Cavigelli... agrees that no-till fields... can hold more carbon than plowed fields. 'In some instances,' says Cavigelli, 'twice as much at the very surface.'" (Joyce, 2009, para. 4).

 

Long Quotations

  • If quotations are longer than 40 words start them a new line and indent a half inch from the left margin but do not change the right margin. Indicate new paragraphs within the quotation by an additional indent.

  • Double space the entire quotation.

  • Follow the final sentence with a parenthetical citation.

Others have contradicted this view:

Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.  In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)