Use author-date method in parenthetical references that guide the reader to the source in your references list. [section 6.11-6.21, pp. 174-79]
Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).
Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples...
If your paper has a direct quotation, you must also include a page number where the quotation can be found (see our APA Quotations page).
"When you include a paraphrase in a paper, you are required to include only the author and date in the citation. You are encouraged (but not required) to also provide the page number (or other location information) for a paraphrased citation when it would help the reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text." - from the APA Blog
Citing Specific Examples from a Source
If the passage in your paper refers to a quote, statistic, chart, or similar specific example from a source, indicate the page (or chapter, paragraph, figure, etc.) where the example is found.
(Tannen, 1990, p. 162). or Tannen (1990) found a wide range of communication preferences among various age groups (p. 162).
This point has already been argued (Tannen, 1990). or Tannen (1990) has argued this point...
Use both names every time cited:
(Baker & Lightfoot, 1993) or Baker and Lightfoot (1993) also reported that...
Include surnames of all authors in the first citation in your text, then use first author et al. in subsequent references:
Bonoldi, Emanuele, and Politi (2009) found... [1st citation in text]
Further more (Bonoldi et al., 2009) [Subsequent citations]
Use the first author and et al.
(Wijga et al., 2009) or The study by Wijga, et al. (2009) found that...
Use a short form of the title that starts the citation entry on the References page.
Scientists report that average temperatures in Antarctica are changing rapidly ("Cooling," 2008).
Use the date to guide your reader to the proper reference in your works cited list.
Morrison's early work (1977)...
Her later novel... (Morrison, 1987).
On the references page, arrange works by the same single author by year of publication.
When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
First initial and last name of interviewee, the words "personal communication", and interview date.
(T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2014) or T.K. Lutes indicated that... (personal communication, April 18, 2014)
Do not include personal communication on References Page.
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