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Citing Sources in Chicago/Turabian Style: Other examples

How to cite sources using Chicago/Turabian style.

Interviews and Personal communications

  • Treat a published or broadcast interview like a magazine article or chapter in a book [14.213]
  • Cite unpublished interviews, letters, conversations in person or by phone and e-mail messages in a note or in the text and do not include in the bibliography [14.211]
  • Begin with the name of the person interviewed or writer of the letter, e-mail, etc.
  • Follow with the name of the interviewer as needed.

Full Notes:

40. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil-MacNeil/Lehrer News-Hour, PBS, February 7, 1990.

41. Laura Whitehorn (of the "Resistance Conspiracy Six"), n.d., interview, videorecording, part of the Emergency Committee to Defend the Human and Legal Rights of Political Prisoners Records, Wisconsin State Historical Society Archives, Madison, WI.

42. Sylvia Contreras, e-mail message to author, June 5, 2009.


Bundy, McGeorge. Interview by Robert MacNeil. VHS. MacNeil-MacNeil/Lehrer News-Hour. PBS, February 7, 1990.

Music and Video

  • Consider listing recordings in a bibliography in a subheading "Sound Recordings" or as separate discography [14.261-263]
  • The name of the performer or conductor, director or actor may be listed first depending on the focus of the discussion (note 43 below).
  • Indexed scenes should be treated like chapters in a book and cited by title or number.
  • Treat published scores like books.

Full Notes:

43. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano, Prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broer. Rev. ed. (Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser, 1960.)

44. Leonard Bernstein, dir., Symphony no. 5, by Dmitri Shostakovich, New York Philharmonic. CBS IM 35854.

45. "Crop Duster Attack," North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.


Bernstein, Leonard, dir. Symphony no. 5, by Dmitri Shostakovich. New York Philharmonic. CBS IM 35854.

"Crop Duster Attack." North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000, DVD.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano. Prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broer. Rev. ed. Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser, 1960.

Sacred Writings

  • Cite Jewish or Christian scriptures in notes rather than in the bibliography.
  • Use an abbreviation for the names of the book and give chapter and verse not page numbers [see 10.45-48 for a list of abbreviations].
  • Identify the version - spelled out in the first citation. You can abbreviate it in subsequent notes.
  • Do not abbreviate the names of books in your text. [10.44, 9.26]
  • The Qur'an surahs or chapters are numbered consecutively throughout the Qur'an. Cite by number and verse alone.
  • Treat commentaries, Bible dictionaries and other works as standard reference books and include in the bibliography as in note 48 (see also note 14).

Text Example:

Both Genesis and the Qur'an record Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son.46

Full Notes:

46. Gen. 22:9-14 (New Revised Standard Version), Qur'an 37:99-105.

47. Luke 10:27 (NRSV).

48. Qur'an 1:1-7.

49. James M. Efird, "Angel of the Lord," Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. Paul J. Achtemeir (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1985), 30.


Efird, James M. "Angel of the Lord." Harper's Bible Dictionary. Edited by Paul J. Achtemeir. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1985, 30.

Government Documents

[see 14:269-14.292]

  • Legal works do not need to be cited in the bibliography if they are cited fully in notes.
  • Cite the country, state, city, county or other government division issuing the document, use abbreviations as given the BlueBook.
  • Include report number or other identifying information (article number, case number, etc).
  • Include URL for online documents (see also note 35). If from a database, include the name of the database and an identifying number (see note 31,32).
  • In Microsoft Word, for § symbol— (Symbol, more symbols, Latin-1 supplement).
  • H.R means House of Representatives, S. stands for Senate.

Full Notes:

50. Homeland Security Act of 2002, H.R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).

51. Select Comm. on Homeland Security, Homeland Security Act of 2002, S. Rep. No. 107-609, pt. 1 (2002).

52. Ill. Const. art. II,.§ 2,


Illinois Constitution, art. 2, sec. 2.