Skip to Main Content

Citing Sources in Chicago/Turabian Style: Home

How to cite sources using Chicago/Turabian style.

Print Book

For complete information consult The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed. 2017).

The Basics

  • Numbers wrapped in [ ] refer to specific sections in the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Directions wrapped in ( ) refer to Microsoft Word formatting commands
  • In your paper credit all ideas, facts, charts, and quotations with footnotes or endnotes.
  • Consult your instructor to see if footnotes or endnotes are preferred.
  • Citations refer the reader to complete publication information in the Bibliography or Works Cited pages [14.19, for examples of short note format see 14.24-36].


  • Number consecutively both footnotes and endnotes. [14.25-28]
  • Use superscript numbers in the text following the punctuation at the end of a phrase or sentence (References / choose Insert Endnote or Insert Footnote). There is no punctuation after the number.
  • Use the full note style for the first note and shortened citations for all subsequent notes. Each time a source is referred to, it must receive its own note. [14.29]
  • You may use "Ibid." (Latin for "in the same place") for references to the same source as the immediately previous note. Use Ibid. alone if you are referring to the same page; or follow with a comma and a different page number as needed. See examples #16-20 on the Periodicals (print) page.
  • Indent the first line with subsequent lines at the left margin for both endnotes and footnotes.
  • Number each note followed by a period and two spaces; do not use superscript numbers in the notes themselves.
  • A space and short solid line goes between the text and the beginning of the footnotes at the bottom of the page. Single space footnotes and double space between footnotes.
  • Endnotes follow the text and any appendixes and come before the bibliography. The endnote section should be labeled Notes to separate it from text and bibliography [14.43].


  • The bibliography is in hanging indent style with the first line of each entry flush left and second and further lines indented five spaces. (Home/Paragraph/Indents and Spacing/Special:Hanging).
  • Arrange in alphabetical order by first word of each work cited. For works with no author, alphabetize by the first major word of the title or chapter title.
  • Bibliography pages may contain only those works cited in your paper or may include recommended or selected sources on the topic as well as the items included in your notes. Use the most appropriate title for the page: Bibliography, Sources Consulted, Works Cited or Selected Bibliography are all acceptable.
  • The bibliography follows the text, appendices and, endnotes, if using them. [14.61]

Ask a Librarian