MLA 8th edition has changed how citations are formed. Works cited entries should consist of the following "core elements" in the order below. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown below. If what you are citing does not have one of the elements, just skip it.
Last, First Middle initial
Gill, Sam D.
Last, First Middle initial, and First Middle initial Last
Doyle, Derek and David Barnard.
Three or more Authors
Last, First Middle Initial, et. al.
Booth, Wayne C., et.al.
For more information on formatting authors, see pages 21-25 of the MLA Handbook.
Title of Source
The "Title of Source" refers to the title of the specific work you are citing - so an article, chapter, or essay title, or a book title if you are using the entire book.
Title of Container
If you are citing something like an encyclopedia article, journal article, essay, or any other piece of information that is part of a larger work, you will need to include the title of that "container." For example, if I am citing a chapter of a book, the title of the chapter would be the "Title of Source" and the title of the entire book would be the "Title of Container."
For more information on formatting different source titles, see pages 25-29 in the MLA Handbook. For more information on formatting different container titles, see pages 30-36 in the MLA Handbook.
Other contributors could be editors, translators, performers, or any other person who is credited in the work you are citing. Some examples you may see include:
For more information on other contributors, see pages 37-38 in the MLA Handbook.
If the work you are citing is a specific edition or version, include it.
Barkley, Russell A. Taking Charge of ADHD. 3rd ed., Guilford Press, 2013.
Holy Bible. New International Version, Zondervan Publishing House, 2001.
For more information on formatting versions, see pages 38-39 in the MLA Handbook. On using abbreviations like ed. and rev., see page 107 in the MLA Handbook.
If the work you are citing is part of a numbered set, include that number. Some examples include:
For more information on formatting numbers, see pages 39-40 in the MLA Handbook.
This can be a book publisher, museum, association, movie studio, or other organization. The publisher would not be included for the following citations:
For more information on formatting publishers and publication dates, see pages 40-42 in the MLA Handbook.
Select and format the publication date based on what is relevant to your use of the work. Multiple dates may be listed.
For example, if you are viewing an online version of a print magazine article and both publication dates are listed, use the online version date since that is what you are viewing.
Including day, month, year, and even time
If any of these are listed and are relevant, include them.
For more information on formatting publishers and publication dates, see pages 40-46 in the MLA Handbook.
Location can mean different things:
For more information on locations, see pages 46-50 in the MLA Handbook.
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