Citing Sources in APA Style
For complete information consult the Publication Manual for the American Psychological Association (6th ed. 2010). Copies are available:
- At the Reference desk
- On the Reference shelves: REF BF 76.7 P83 2010
Check the book for updates on writing and publishing in social and behavioral sciences, bias free language, new chapter heading style, creating tables, expanded sample paper section and checklists for ethical issues of research and publication. Online help is on the website: http://apastyle.apa.org/
Numbers in brackets refer to sections and page numbers in the book
Highlights of Changes
- Punctuation - return to two spaces after the period at the end of the sentence (recommended for ease of reading comprehension). Use a single space after periods that separate elements in citations in References lists.
- Places of publication - Identify both city and state for all publishers - Use standard 2 letter abbreviations for states.
- List all authors in the order given up to and including seven authors; for more than seven list the first 6 followed by a comma and... final author.
- Include DOI whenever available for articles you used in either print or online.
See Additonal Info for help in locating DOIs.
- For full text articles from library databases WITHOUT a DOI:
- Edgewood student papers - add Retrieved from Database Name database - it will lead to where the article is available on campus.
- APA standard for articles without DOI - give the URL of the journal/publisher website where people can purchase the article if they don't already subscribe to the journal and have a login. Do this if submitting an article for publication. [7.01 p.198]
Use author-date method in parenthetical references that guide the reader to the source in your references list. [See 6.11-6.21, pp. 174-79 for details and exceptions.]
One AuthorThis point has already been argued (Tannen, 1990).
OR Tannen (1990) has argued this point
The citation for this example in the reference list is:
Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand: Women and men in conversation. New York, NY: Morrow.
Two Authors - use both names every time cited: (Baker & Lightfoot,1993)
OR Baker and Lightfoot (1993) also reported that...
Three to five Authors - include surnames of all authors in the first citation in your text, then use first author et al. in subsequent references:
Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found [1st citation in text]
Further more (Kisangu et al., 2007) [Subsequent citations]
- Six or more authors - use the first author and et al. (Wijga et al., 2009)
OR The study by Wijga, et al. (2009) found that
Works without authors - use a short form of the title that starts the citation entry on the References page.
Scientists report that average temperatures in Antarctica are changing rapidly ("Cooling," 2008).
- Two or more works by the same author - use the date to guide your reader to the proper reference in your works cited list.
Morrison's early work (1977)...
Her later novel... (Morrison, 1987).
On the references page, arrange works by the same single author by year of publication.
Cooling Trend in Antarctica. (2008). Futurist 36(3):15-20. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Morrison, T. (1977). Song of Solomon. New York, NY: Knopf, 1977.
Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved: A novel. New York, NY: Random, 1987.
Personal Communication (in person & electronic) - first initial and last name of interviewee, the words "personal communication", and interview date.
T.K. Lutes indicated that... (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
(T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2001)
Do not include personal communication on References Page.
The References page follows the last page of your text. It documents sources cited and provides information to access each source.
- Keep the running head, follow the number order and center the word 'References'.
- Arrange items in alphabetical order by first word of the entry.
- Capitalize the first word of article/book titles, subtitles and any proper nouns.
- Italicize periodical titles, use upper and lower case as given.
- Use hanging indent and double space the entire page - no extra lines between items.
- Copy URLs where appropriate (to remove underlining in Word, right click on URL and select Remove Hyperlink).
- If URL or DOI is included, do not end reference with a period.
Books & other Non-Periodicals
Author, A. A. (1999). Title of work: Subtitle. City, ST: Publisher.
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Chapter or part of a book (with chapters by different authors) [7.02 p. 202]
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
Entry in an online encyclopedia - no author [7.02.30 p. 205]
Relativity. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from http://0-www.search.eb.com/eb/article-9109465
Volume number is in italics; issue number is not. [6.30 p. 186].
List all authors in order given, up to 7 [6.12 p. 175]
In print magazine with issue numbers
Yapko, M. (2009, September/October). Secondhand blues: Depression is contagious. Psychology Today, 42(5), 86-93.
Print newspaper - no author
Big tobacco strikes back. (2009, September 7). The New York Times, p. A14.
Newspaper - author and discontinuous pages
McNeil, D. G., Jr. (2009, September 11). One shot seen as protective for swine flu. The New York Times, pp. A1, A13.
Journal article with DOI - print or online
Wijga, A. H., Scholtens, S., Wieringa, M. H., Kerkhof, M., Gerritsen, J., Brunekreef, B., . . . Smit, H. A. (2009). Adenotonsillectomy and the development of overweight. Pediatrics, 123(6), 1095-1101. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1502
Journal article with no DOI
For Edgewood Papers: include the name of the database (this is not APA standard)
APA Style: include URL of the journal's home page
Foss, G. F., Chantal, A. W., & Hendrickson, S. (2004). Maternal depression and infant development: A comparison of foreign and native mothers. Public Health, 21(3), 237-246. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Recommendations regarding the use of vaccines that contain thimerosal. (1999, November 5) MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 48(43), 996-998. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/
Eric Documents (informally published) [see section 7.09.62 p.212 of A.P.A.]
Muhammad, B. D. (2009). Does site-based management increase student achievement? Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED505985)
- Identify the type of medium being reviewed in brackets - book, motion picture, TV program, etc.
- For Book add title, by author names; For film, DVD, or other media include title, producer, year of release.
- For untitled reviews, use information in brackets as the title and keep brackets.
Rochman, H. (2001, November 1) [Review of the book Tiger's fall ]. Booklist 98 (5), 35.
Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304. doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1304
Dissertations and Theses
Follow Basic form and add retrieval information as necessary. [7.05 p.207]
Author, A. A. (Year) Title of dissertation or master's theses (Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.
From a commercial database
McNeil. D. S. (2006) Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No. 1434728)
From an institutional database
Adams, R.J. (1973) Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/
Unpublished dissertation (for example from the library or borrowed through ILL)
Fitzgerald, M. K. (2008). Defining the transition-to-school needs of Latino English language learner families (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Edgewood College, Madison WI.
Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972).
Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 29 U.S.C. § 621 (1967).
Charter Schools, Wis. Stat. § 118.40 (2011).
Government & Institutional Reports (may have corporate author) [see 7.03 p.205]
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2009). The assessment accommodation matrix for Wisconsin. Retrieved from http://dpi.wi.gov/oea/pdf/accom09.pdf
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (n.d.). How to write a services plan. Retrieved from http://www.nichcy.org/babies/IFSP/Pages/default.aspx
For reports retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless [it] has been identified as the author: Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://www.xxxxxxx [see 7.03 p. 205]
Mayo Clinic staff. (2010, August 21). Symptoms. Influenza (flu). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/influenza/DS00081/DSECTION=symptoms
Edgewood College. (n.d.). Academic honesty policy. In Student handbook. Retrieved from http://my.edgewood.edu/sites/services/shk/Contents/AcademicHonestyPolicy.aspx
Smith, S., & Jones, J. (2009). Assessing heart failure in long term care facilities. Retrieved from University of Iowa Department of Nursing, Gerontology Nursing Interventions Research Center website: http://www.nursing.uiowa.edu/sites/users/Gardery/EBP/Protocols.htm
Follow format for archival material for historical images or documents on the internet.
Milwaukee Public School rules. (1846) [Poster image]. Wisconsin Historical Images (Image ID 2205), Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved from http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/whi/
[See also the rules for Software 7.08 p. 210]
Skyscape. (2013). Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com
For a reference entry within an app:
Diabetes. (2013). In Epocrates Essentials for Apple iOS (Version 5.1) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://www.epocrates.com/mobile/iphone/essentials
[See Audiovisual Media for other formats 7.07 p.209]
Smith, M. (Producer/Director). (2008). Heat: A global investigation [DVD]. Available from http://shopPBS.org
Joyce, C. (2009, September 3). Can Dirt Really Save Us From Global Warming? [Radio program transcript]. In R. Montagne (Host), Morning Edition. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=112496096
Enclose short quotations - up to 40 words - incorporated into your text in "double quotation marks."
Cite the source with page numbers immediately following the end of the quotation. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. [6.05 pp. 171-172]
Use ellipsis (...) to indicate any words you omitted from the original work. Use 4 dots to indicate an omission between sentences - one is the period at the end of the sentence.
- Use 'single quotation marks' to indicate dialog or quotations within a quotation.
Scientists are studying how much carbon is stored in soil and what difference plowing makes on that amount. "Soil scientist Michel Cavigelli... agrees that no-till fields... can hold more carbon than plowed fields. 'In some instances,' says Cavigelli, 'twice as much at the very surface.'" (Joyce, 2009, para. 4).
- Use brackets [ ] around any words you add within a quotation to make it readable or define a term.
"They are studying, from an evolutionary perspective, to what extent [children's] play is a luxury that can be dispensed with when there are too many other competing claims on the growing brain... " (Henig, 2008, pp. 39-40).
Start longer quotations on a new line and indent a half inch from the left margin but do not change the right margin. Indicate new paragraphs within the quotation by an additional indent.
Double space the entire quotation.
Follow the final sentence with a parenthetical citation.
Use original sources whenever possible. If you use material quoted by someone else, note that it is "quoted in" and cite the source you have.
Henig, R. M. (2008) Studies in the role of play. Child Development Quarterly 55(3), 38-62.
Joyce, C. (2009, September 3). Can dirt really save us from global warming? Morning Edition. [Transcript] Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112496096
In a library database: look for the Digital Object Identifier in the citation, or full record view.
Print (or PDF): the DOI is usually on the first or last page.
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|doi||Digital Object Identifier|
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|Ed. (Eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|p. (pp.)||page (pages)|
|Vol.||Volume (as in Vol. 4)|
|Vols.||Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|
|Tech. Rep.||Technical Report|